KONTROVERSI HUKUM ASURANSI
STUDI TENTANG ARGUMENTASI MUṢṬAFĀ AḤMAD AL-ZARQĀ’ DALAM PEMBOLEHAN ASURANSI
Insurance came to the Islamic world around the 19th century AD. As long as the insurance law in Islam is concerned, the contemporary Islamic scholars are divided into three groups. First, scholars who allow it absolutely; secondly, the ulama who forbid it absolutely; and thirdly, scholars who legalize social insurance and forbid commercial insurance. One of the contemporary scholars who justifies insurance is Muṣṭafā Aḥmad al-Zarqā', a prominent Islamic scholar of Ḥanafi from Syria. The findings of this study are that in the perspective of Islamic legal theory the arguments of al-Zarqāʼ can be justified. The theory of Islamic law used by al-Zarqā' in examining insurance is the theory of ijtihad bi ar-ra'y by istiṣḥābī and ta'līl methods. Al-Zarqa' views that insurance is a new contract that does not exist in Islamic jurisprudence. Every Muslim is allowed to create new contracts that have not existed before as long as there is no prohibition against them. Al-Zarqāʼ analogize the insurance with the existing contracts in Islamic jurisprudence, among which is the contract of muwālāh from Hanafite school of law, ḍamān khaṭr al-ṭarīq from Hanafites, al-iltizām wa al-wa’d al-mulzim in Malikites, and al-‘āqilah in Syafi’ites.