MENEROPONG DINAMIKA MUSLIM DI BARAT MELALUI FIQH AL-AQALLIYAT

  • Syaifudin Zuhri UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta
Keywords: fiqh al-aqalliyat, fatwa, iftā’, syari’ah, Muslim minoritas

Abstract

Semakin meningkatnya angka demografis masyarakat Muslim dan lembaga-lembaga Islam yang didirikan di negara-negara Barat membuktikan bahwa Islam adalah agama yang paling cepat berkembang di sana. Namun demikian, masyarakat Muslim di Barat adalah komunitas minoritas yang hidup di tengah-tengah budaya masyarakat selain Islam. Karena itu, mereka harus berhadapan dengan persoalan-persoalan unik dalam mempraktekkan syariat, lebih tepatnya fikih. Persoalan tersebut mungkin tidak pernah dihadapi oleh masyarakat Muslim lain yang hidup di negara-negara Muslim. Mereka harus berhadapan dengan persoalan bagaimana menerapkan syariat dalam konteks masyarakat Barat. Fiqh al-aqalliyat (fikih minoritas) adalah salah satu jawaban atas persoalan tersebut. Fiqh al-aqalliyat merupakan hasil kreasi Muslim minoritas yang hidup di Barat serta menjadi metode penting dalam merumuskan fikih yang aplikatif (di Barat). Iftā’ adalah institusionalisasi dari upaya tersebut.

References

Al-Alwani, Taha Jabir. “Fiqh for Minorities,” dalam http://www.isna.net.
________. Towards a Fiqh for Minorities. London & Washington: the International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2003.
Allievi, Stefano. “Islam in the Public Space: Social Networks, Media and Neo-Communities,” dalam Stefano Allievi dan Jørgen Nielsen (eds.), Muslim Networks and Transnational Communities in and across Europe. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2003.
Baz, Shaykh Ibn dan Shaykh Uthaymeen. Muslim Minorities, Fatawa Regarding Muslims Living as Minorities. Hounslow: Massage of Islam, 1998.
Bentzin, Anke. “Islamic TV Programmes as a Forum of a Religious Discourse,” Stefano Allievi dan Jørgen Nielsen (eds.), Muslim Networks and Transnational Communities in and across Europe. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2003.
Caeiro, Alexandre. “An-Anti Riot Fatwa”, ISIM Review, 17/Spring 2006.
Cammack, Mark & Michael Feener (eds.). Islamic Law in Contemporary Indonesia: Ideas and Institutions. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2007.
Delorenzo, Yusuf Talal. “The Fiqh Councilor in North America,” Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and John L. Esposito (eds.). Muslims on the Americanization Path?. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
________. “Fiqh and the Fiqh Council of North America,” Journal of Islamic Law and Society, 1998.
Dudoignon, S.A. “Echoes to Al-Manâr among the Muslims of the Russian Empire,” dalam S.A. Dudoignon et al (eds.), Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission, Transformation, Communication. London/New York: Routledge, 2006.
El Fadl, Khaled Abou. “Striking a Balance: Islamic Legal Discourse on Muslim Minorities,” dalam Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and John L. Esposito. Muslims on the Americanization Path?. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
El-Tahawy, Abdallah. “The Internet is the New Mosque,” http://www.arabinsight.org.
Feener, Michael. Muslim Legal Thought in Modern Indonesia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
Fishman, Shamai. Fiqh al-Aqalliyyat: a Legal Theory for Muslim Minorities. Washington: Hudson Institute, 2006.
Haddad, Yvonne Y. “A Century of Islam in America”, Hamdard Islamicus, Vol. XXI, No. 4, Muslim World Occassional paper No. 4, 1997.
Haddad, Yvonne Y. and Jane I. Smith, “Introduction” in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Jane Idelman-Smith (eds.), Muslim Minorities in the West Visible and Invisible. Walnut Creek, California: Atamira Press, 2002.
Haddad, Yvonne Y. and John L. Esposito. Muslims on the Americanization Path?. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Hallaq, Wael B., “Was the Gate of Ijtihad Closed?,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 16, No. 1, Mar., 1984.
________. A History of Islamic Legal Theories. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
________. Shari’a: Theory, Practice and Transformation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Hooker, M. B., Indonesia Islam: Social Change through Contemporary Fatawa. Honolulu: Allen & Unwin and University of Hawai’i Press, 2003.
Ichwan, Moch. Nur. “Prayer in the Surinam-Javanese Diaporic Experience,” ISIM Newsletter 3/99.
Kaptein, Nico J. G. “the Voice of Ulama’: Fatwas and Religious Authority in Indonesia,” Archives de sciences sociales des religions, 49e Année, No. 125, Authorités Religieuses en Islam, Jan. - Mar., 2004.
Khadduri, Madjid. “Maslaha, Encyclopedia of Islam, CD-Room edition. Leiden: Brill.
Khan, Asif K. The Fiqh of Minorities: the New Fiqh to Subvert Islam. London: Khilafah Publication, 2004.
Khusen, Moh. “Contending Identity in the Islamic Ritual: the Slametan among Surinamese Javanese Muslims in the Netherlands,” Al-Jami’ah, Vol. 43, No. 2, 2005.
Malik, Maleiha. “Accommodating Muslim in Europe,” ISIM Review, 13, December 2003.
Maréchal, Brigite. “Introduction: From Past to Present,” Brigite Maréchal, at al. (eds.), Muslims in the Enlarged Europe : Religion and Society. Leiden: Brill, 2003.
Masud, Muhammad Khalid. “Islamic Law and Muslim Minorities,” ISIM Review, Vol. 11, No. 02, Desember 2002.
________. Brinkley Messick, and David S. Powers (eds.). Islamic Legal Interpretation: Muftis and Their Fatwas. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996.
Miller, Kathryn A., “Muslim Minorities and the Obligation to Emigrate to Islamic Territory: Two Fatwas from Fifteenth-Century Granada,” Islamic Law and Society, 7: 2, 2000.
Al-Qarda>wi>, Yu>suf. Fi Fiqh al-Aqalliyyat al-Muslima—Hayat al-Muslimin Wasat al-Muitama’at al-Ukhra. Cairo: Dar al-Suruq, 2001.
Ramadan, Tariq. To be a European Muslim. Leicester: Islamic Foundation, 1999.
Al-Rawi, Ahmad. “Islam, Muslims and Islamic Activity in Europe: Reality, Obstacles and Hopes,” http://www.islam-online.net.
Rohe, Mathias. “Application of Shari’a Rules in Europe-Scope and Limit”, Die Welt des Islams, Vol. 44, No. 3, 2004.
________. “On the Applicability of Islamic Rules in Germany and Europe,” European Yearbook of Minority Issues, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2003.
Ryad, Umar. “A Prelude to Fiqh al-Aqalliyat: Rashid Rida’s Fatwas to Muslim under non-Muslim Rule,” in Timmerman, Christiane, et al, (eds.), In-Between Spaces Christian and Muslim Minorities in Transition in Europe and the Middle East. Brussels: P.I.E. Peter Lang, 2009.
Saeed, Abdullah. Muslims Australians: Their Beliefs, Practices and Institutions. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 2004.
________. dan Shahram Akbarzadeh (eds.), Muslim Communities in Australia. Sydney: UNSW Press, 2001.
Schacht, Joseph. An Introduction to Islamic Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964.
Shadid, W. dan P. S. van Koningsveld. “Religious Authorities of Muslim in the West: Their Views on Political Participation,” Intercultural Relations and Religious Authorities: Muslim in the European Union. Leuven: Peeters, 2002.
Sujadi. “Persatuan Muslim se-Eropa (PPME): its Qualified Founders, Progression, and Nature,” Al-Jami’ah, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2010.
Al-Tufi, Najmu al-Din. Risalah fi Ri’ayah al-Maslahah. Kairo: Dar al-Misriyah al-Bananiyah, 1993.
Wahyudi, Yudian. "Hasbi's Theory of Ijtihad in the Context of Indonesian Fiqh”, MA thesis, McGill University, 1993.