REREADING THE LAW OF APOSTASY IN HADIS USING HERMENEUTICAL TAKHRIJ METHOD

  • Fazlul Rahman Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
Keywords: murtad, hermeneutik, hadis, takhrij, makna

Abstract

Isu membunuh orang murtad dalam Islam masih menjadi perdebatan, mengingat hal tersebut (terkesan) didukung oleh ajaran Islam. Hadis yang menyatakan ‘man  baddala dinahu faqtuluh’ (barang siapa  yang  mengganti agamanya, maka bunuhlah dia!) seringkali digunakan untuk meligitimasi hukuman mati  bagi orang murtad. Sayangnya, model konvensional pembacaan teks-teks hadis yang disediakan oleh ulama hadis klasik justru mendukung hukuman kejam tersebut. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki isu terkait hukuman bagi orang murtad dengan  mengajukan metode  baru  pembacaan hadis  yang  disebut ‘Takhrij Hermeneutis’. Penggunaan metode  baru  ini  bertujuan  untuk  menyuguhkan kepada pembaca makna hadis yang lebih luas, kontektual, dan sesuai dengan konteks kekinian. Dengan metode ini, pembacaan para ulama terhadap hadis Nabi tersebut seringkali tereduksi hanya pada masalah hukuman mati saja bagi orang murtad, sehingga menyebabkan kesalahpahaman di antara mereka. Dengan demikian, perlu upaya pembaruan pembacaan hadis Nabi melalui metode baru.

References

‘Abd al-Mall, Ibn Battal Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali bin Khalaf bin. Syarh Sahih al-Bukhari li Ibn Battal . Riyad: Maktabah al-Rushd, 2003.
Al-‘Asqalani, Ahmad ibn ‘Ali ibn Hajar. Tahzib al-Tahzib. Bairut: Dar al-Fikr, 1404.
________. Taqrib al-Tahzib. Suria: Dar al-Rasyid, 1406.
Azami, M. Mustafa. Studies in Hadith Methodology and Literature. Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1992.
Berger, Maurits. “Apostasy and Public Policy in Contemporary Egypt: An Evaluation of Recent Cases from Egypt’s Highes Courts.” Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 3 (August 2003), pp. 720-740.
Brinkerhoff, Merlin B. and Marlene M. Mackie. “Casting off the Bonds of Organized Religion: A Religious-Careers Approach to the Study of Apostasy.” Review of Religious Research, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Mar., 1993), pp. 235-258.
Al-Bukhari. al-Jami’ al-Sahih al-Mukhtasar. Beirut: Dar ibn Kasir, 1987.
de Silva, David A. “Exchanging Favor for Wrath: Apostasy in Hebrews and Patron-Client Relationships.” Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 115, No. 1 (Spring, 1996), pp. 91-116.
Gadamer, Hans-Georg. Truth and Method. New York: Continuum, 1975.
Gracia, Jorge J. E. ATheory of Textuality: The Logic and Epistemology . New York: State University of New York Press, 1995.
Hamilton, Robert L. “Does Hebrew 6:6 Teach that Apostasy is Without Remedy?” on http://www.geocities.com.
Helfand, Jonathan I. “Assessing Apostasy: Facts and Theories,” Jewish History, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Fall, 1991), pp. 65-71
________. “Passports and Piety: Apostasy in Nineteenth-Century France.” Jewish History, Vol. 3 No. 2 (Fall, 1988), pp. 59-83.
Hunsberger, Bruce and L.B. Brown. “Religious Socialization, Apostasy, and the Impact of Family Background.” Journal of the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 23, No. 3 (Sep., 1984), pp. 239-251
Al-Mizzi, Yusuf ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman Abu al-Hajjaj. Tahzib al-Kamal . Bairut: Mu’assasah al-Risalah, 1400 H.
Monib, Mohammad and Islah Bahrawi. Islam & Hak Asasi Manusi dalam Pandangan Nurcholish Madjid. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2011.
Peters, Rudolph and Gert J. J. De Vries. “Apostasy in Islam.” Die Welt des Islams, New Series, Vol. 17, (1976-1977).
Al-Qardawi, Yusuf. al-Khasa’is al-‘Ammah lil-Islam. Cairo: Dar al-Ma’rifah.
Al-Qurtubi, Abu al-Walid Sulaiman bin Khalaf. al-Ta’dil wa al-Tajrih li man Kharraja lahu al-Bukhari fi al-Jami’ al-Sahih. Dar al-Liwa’ li al-Nashr wa al-Tawzi’, 1986.
Rahman, Fazlur. Islam and Modernity: Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition. London: The University of Chicago Press, 1982.
Ricoeur, Paul. Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
________. Interpretation Theory: Discourse and The Surplus of Meaning. Texas: The Texas Christian University Press, 1976.
Saeed, Abdullah and Hassan Saeed. Freedom of Religion, Apostasy and Islam. USA: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2004.
Al-Salih, Subhi .’Ulum al-Hadith wa Mustalahuhu. Bairut: Dar al-‘Ilm, 1981H.
Schleiermacher, Friedrich. Hermeneutics and Criticism and Other Writings. UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Selim, Deringil. “ ‘There Is No Compulsion in Religion’: On Conversion and Apostasy in the Late Ottoman Empire: 1839-1856.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 42, No. 3 (Jul., 2000), pp. 547-575.
Sherkat, Darren E. and John Wilson. “Preference, Constraints, and Choices in Religious Markets: An Examination of Religious Switching and Apostasy.” Social Forces, Vol. 73, No. 3 (Mar., 1995), pp. 993-1026.
Suazo, Ruby S. “Ricoeur’s Hermeneutic as Appropriation: A Way of Understanding Oneself In Front of the Text.” available online on http://sphynxrhuzzhz.webs.com.
Uecker, Jeremy E., Mark D. Regnerus, and Margaret L. Vaaler. “Losing My Religion: The Social Sources of Religious Decline in Early Adulthood.” Social Forces, Vol. 85, No. 4, June 2007.
Zelan, Joseph. “Religious Apostasy, Higher Education, and Occupational Choice.” Sociology of Education, Vol. 41, No. 4 (Autumn, 1968), pp. 370-379.
Zwemer, Samuel M. The Law of Apostasy in Islam: Answering the Question Why There Are So Few Moslem Converts, and Giving Examples of Their Moral Courage and Martydrom. London, Edinburgh& New York: Marshall Brothers, LTD,h.d.