Al-Manahij: Jurnal Kajian Hukum Islam http://ejournal.iainpurwokerto.ac.id/index.php/almanahij <p>Al-Manahij: Jurnal Kajian Hukum Islam (Journal of Islamic Law Studies) is published by Faculty of Syariah, Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Purwokerto, Indonesia.<br><br>The subject covers textual and fieldwork studies with various perspectives of Islamic law. Al-Manahij is published twice a year, presenting qualified scholarly articles. It always places Islamic law in the central focus of academic inquiry, and invites any comprehensive observation of Islamic law as a system of norms in Muslim society. This journal is a forum for debate for scholars and professionals concerned with the Islamic law and Islamic legal cultures within local and challenging global contexts. Al-Manahij has become a medium of diffusion and exchange of ideas and research findings, so much so that researchers, writers, and readers have interacted in the scholarly manner.</p> Fakultas Syariah IAIN Purwokerto en-US Al-Manahij: Jurnal Kajian Hukum Islam 1978-6670 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> FIKIH KONSERVASI LAUT http://ejournal.iainpurwokerto.ac.id/index.php/almanahij/article/view/1356 <pre style="text-align: justify;"><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Humanst521 Lt BT','sans-serif'; font-size: 12pt;" lang="EN">This paper aims to reconstruct fishing jurisprudence in Lamongan regency in an eco-sharia perspective. Eco-sharia is a religious value that serves as a tool of social control for coastal communities in utilizing sustainable fisheries resources. Marine conservation efforts are a guarantee for the protection of marine resources in order to remain protected and sustainable. Fishing jurisprudence needs to be formulated to provide eco-sharia insight for fishermen about environmentally friendly fishing and in accordance with religious values. Fishing jurisprudence will be constructed based on fishery conservation practices in Lamongan regency as one of the coastal areas of Pantura that has been designated as a minapolitan fishery town. The implications of the reconstruction of fishing jurisprudence are expected to build a culture conscious of the marine environment and synergize the economic and ecological aspects as a culture for the fishermen community.</span></pre> Moh Mufid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 12 1 1 16 10.24090/mnh.v12i1.1356 PELAKSANAAN TINDAK PIDANA PEMERKOSAAN http://ejournal.iainpurwokerto.ac.id/index.php/almanahij/article/view/1358 <p style="margin: 0px 15px 0px 28.4px; text-align: justify; line-height: normal; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Rape is </span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">a </span><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">sexual crime that indicates highly enough rate in Indonesia. Rape </span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">according to</span><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;"> the view of Islamic </span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">law </span><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">is different </span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">from</span><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;"> adultery. Adultery is sexual intercourses between man and woman without legal marriage and carried out consciously on the basis of mutual needs. Rape is not doing of just sexual intercourse but it has additional element </span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">that </span><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">is carried out with force, violence or threats. Sanctions against rapists according to Islamic law is exactly the same as the act of adultery that is stoning and damping. Such sanctions apply only to rapists and not to the victim. Aceh</span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">’s</span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;"> <em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px;">Qa</span></em></span><em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">̄</span></em><em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">nūn</span></em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;"> on <em>Jinā</em>yat </span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">(criminal) </span><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">law for the people is regulated in Regional Regulation (PERDA) No. 6 of 2014.<em> Qa</em></span><em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">̄</span></em><em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">nūn Jina</span></em><em><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">̄</span></em><em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">yat</span></em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;"> for the people of Aceh is </span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">a </span><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">unity of<span style="margin: 0px;">&nbsp; </span>criminal law formed based on Islamic Shari'ah values ​​derived from the Qur</span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">’</span><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">an and </span><em><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Ḥ</span></em><em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">adi</span></em><em><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">̄ṡ</span></em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">. According to <em>Qa</em></span><em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">̄</span></em><em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">nūn Jina</span></em><em><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">̄</span></em><em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">yat</span></em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;"> Aceh, everyone doing sexual </span><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">rape </span><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">crime is threatened with </span><em><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">‘</span></em><em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">uqu</span></em><em><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">̄</span></em><em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">bat ta’zīr</span></em><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;"> which in its application there is a difference of punishment </span><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;"><span style="margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</span></span><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">with what is in the view of </span><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;"><span style="margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</span></span><span lang="IN" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Islamic law.</span></p> Nurhayati Nurhayati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 12 1 17 30 10.24090/mnh.v12i1.1358 QAUL AL-MUKHTĀR AL-NAWAWĪ SEBAGAI PENDAPAT ALTERNATIF MUSLIM NUSANTARA http://ejournal.iainpurwokerto.ac.id/index.php/almanahij/article/view/1345 <p>The spreading of Syafi’ite school of law in Indonesia until now has a long history in the process of Islamic transmission in the country. Islam entered into Indonesian archipelago through the merchants in the seventh century. However, the dispersion of Islam could not run smoothly before Wali Songo emerged in Indonesian society at the fifteenth century. In this era, Islam could be received and absorbed widely by the Indonesians. The Islamic school of law that is brought by Wali Songo is Syafi’ite. Even most of Muslims in Indonesia follow Syafi’ite school of law, in the real life including in their daily prayers and trade activities, they are not use this school entirely. One of the reasons why this school is not practiced by Muslims fully is difficult to practice. The existence of <em>Qaul al-Mukhtār </em>of al-Nawawī can be an alternative way for the followers of this school of law that is difficult in practicing one of his opinions. Besides its strong arguments, <em>Qaul al-Mukhtar </em>of al- Nawawī is not really out from the rule of Syafi’ite school of law. In addition, it is representation of <em>Fikih al-Muyassar </em>(simplifed fiqh) concept for Muslim in Indonesia. Therefore, the follower of Syafi’ite school of law in Indonesia can feel easy and peace in practicing Islam.</p> Muhammad Kudhori ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 12 1 31 50 10.24090/mnh.v12i1.1345 MODEL PENERAPAN SYARIAH DALAM NEGARA MODERN: http://ejournal.iainpurwokerto.ac.id/index.php/almanahij/article/view/1328 <p>Modernization of politics in islamic world causes hard dynamics in the relation betwen religion (sharī’ah) with state or politics. This paper tries to discuss the historical background of that discussion, and tries to show the models of sharī ’ah implementation in the context of modern state. The result of this study is that there are three models of sharī ’ah implementation in modern Islamic world: integration betwen religion (Islam) and state as in Saudi Arabia and Islamic Republic of Iran. In this model sharī ah&nbsp; formally becomes the positive law.&nbsp; The second model is secular state. In this model religion (and sharī’ah) separated from the state. The best example for this model is Republic of Turkey. And the last is symbiosis-intersectional model as Republic of Indonesia. This model is the middle position betwen both of them. The difference of the models are caused by the diversity of socio-historical-economic-political background of these states.</p> pepen irpan fauzan, PIF Ahmad Khoirul Fata ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 12 1 51 70 10.24090/mnh.v12i1.1328 IJTIHAD IBN QAYYIM AL-JAWZIYYAH DAN AL-MAQĀṢID AL-JUZ’IYYAH http://ejournal.iainpurwokerto.ac.id/index.php/almanahij/article/view/1362 <p>The understanding of a mujtahid toward <em>maqāṣid al-syarī</em><em>ʻah</em> becomes something urgent and significant, since <em>ijtihad</em> must be able to realize benefits, which is the substance of <em>maqāṣid al-syar</em><em>īʻ</em><em>ah</em> both in the general scale (<em>‘</em><em>āmmah</em>), special (<em>khā</em><em>ṣ</em><em>ṣah</em>), as well as in scale for specific cases (<em>juz`iyyah</em>). Ibn Qayyim, for example, in most cases is very concerned about <em>maqāṣid al-syar</em><em>ī</em><em>'ah</em>, which one of its parts is <em>al-maqāṣid al-juz’iyyah</em>. In the case of the necessity of cleaning urine trails, specifically (<em>juz'ī</em>) it is not required to the urine of baby boys. This clearly shows that Ibn Qayyim is very concerned about <em>al-maqāṣid al-juz’iyyah</em>, because it is difficult to clean urine traces of baby boys so that it is not required to clean it up but simply by splashing water on the traces. Likewise in other cases, such as the necessity of ablution after eating camel meat, which is not required to be other than camel meat, the sale and purchase of <em>salam</em> (order) and the waiting period of women left behind, also shows that Ibn Qayyim is very concerned with the realization of <em>al-</em><em>maqāṣid al-juz’iyyah</em> in establishing the law .</p> Nofialdi nofialdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 12 1 71 86 10.24090/mnh.v12i1.1362 KONTROVERSI HUKUM ASURANSI http://ejournal.iainpurwokerto.ac.id/index.php/almanahij/article/view/1322 <p>Insurance came to the Islamic world around the 19th century AD. As long as the insurance law in Islam is concerned, the contemporary Islamic scholars are divided into three groups. First, scholars who allow it absolutely; secondly, the ulama who forbid it absolutely; and thirdly, scholars who legalize social insurance and forbid commercial insurance. One of the contemporary scholars who justifies insurance is Muṣṭafā Aḥmad al-Zarqā', a prominent Islamic scholar of Ḥanafi from Syria. The findings of this study are that in the perspective of Islamic legal theory the arguments of al-Zarqāʼ can be justified. The theory of Islamic law used by al-Zarqā' in examining insurance is the theory of <em>ijtihad bi ar-ra'y</em> by <em>istiṣḥābī</em> and <em>ta'līl</em> methods. Al-Zarqa' views that insurance is a new contract that does not exist in Islamic jurisprudence. Every Muslim is allowed to create new contracts that have not existed before as long as there is no prohibition against them. Al-Zarqāʼ analogize the insurance with the existing contracts in Islamic jurisprudence, among which is the contract of <em>muwālāh</em> from Hanafite school of law, <em>ḍamān </em><em>k</em><em>haṭr a</em><em>l</em><em>-ṭarīq</em> from Hanafites, <em>al-</em><em>i</em><em>ltizām wa al-</em><em>w</em><em>a’d al-</em><em>m</em><em>ulzim</em> in Malikites, and <em>al-</em><em>‘āqilah</em> in Syafi’ites.</p> Hasanudin Hasanudin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 12 1 87 104 10.24090/mnh.v12i1.1322 THE CONCEPT OF AL-SYĀṬIBĪ’S AL-TA‘ĀRUḌ WA AL-TARJĪḤ http://ejournal.iainpurwokerto.ac.id/index.php/almanahij/article/view/1331 <p><em>Al-Ta‘āruḍ wa al-tarjīḥ</em> is a methodology offered by al-Syāṭibī to overcome problems that often arise in fiqh issues faced by the people. This study is a descriptive literature study (library research) aims to determine how the concept of <em>al-Ta‘āruḍ wa al-tarjīḥ</em> offered, with <em>fahm al-naṣṣ </em>methods that exist in its <em>al-Muwāfaqāt</em>. To al-Syāṭibī, no <em>at-ta‘āruḍ </em>(contradiction) in texts but there is a contradiction among <em>mujtahid</em>s (Muslim jurists) in understanding the texts. Then, the <em>mujtahid</em>s (jurists) should not be in a hurry to do <em>istinbāṭ al-ḥukm</em> (taking out the law) which originated from the <em>ẓāhir </em>contradictory arguments. A depth and universal study toward contradictive postulates seems needed by <em>mujtahid</em> both using their precision and intelligence. Because of the precision and intelligence <em>mujtahid</em>s are varying, it causes the appearance of a conflict between <em>mujtahid</em>s in looking at the arguments. To find a solution to the problem, the offer is the use of <em>tarjīḥ</em> method, looking for the most powerful arguments, and then serving them as the basis to take a single <em>istinbāṭ al-ḥukm</em>.</p> Farkhani Farkhani Elviandri Elviandri Sigit Sapto Nugroho ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 12 1 105 118 10.24090/mnh.v12i1.1331 MINING-TRADING CRYPTOCURRENCY DALAM HUKUM ISLAM http://ejournal.iainpurwokerto.ac.id/index.php/almanahij/article/view/1303 <p>This paper discusses the mining-trading of cryptocurrency in Islamic law as a digital asset that has recently been traded in cyberspace. The value of cryptocurrency is soaring and fluctuation and it is influenced by the demand of buying and selling. Indodax.com is the official digital asset site in Indonesia that trades more than 13 digital currencies. As we know, digital currencies are not electronic money, even though the characteristic is similar. Starting from this, I analyze whether cryptocurrency is worthy of being value as money that has a certain value. Until now, the Indonesian government through Bank Indonesia has published regulation Number 16/8/PBI/ 2014, which explicitly prohibits using bitcoin and altcoin on financial transactions. Otherwise, MUI (Indonesian Ulema Council) has not issued a <em>fatwa</em> yet related to cryptocurrency. From here, I focuse on this study to the law of cryptocurrency in Islamic law. Bitcoin has advantages and disadvantages. Among its advantages are the user can use exchange or transaction without third service (bank), and it can be traded in merchandise shops. But, the disadvantages of bitcoin are mach more, such as fluctuating value every times, it is not listed as a commodity, it is not watched by Financial Services Authority (OJK), it presents the element of <em>gharar</em> (uncertainty) and <em>maysir</em> (gambling or bet), which makes it possible to be used for money laundering and drugs. On the other hand, until now, the Indonesian people have not considered that bitcoin as a treasure like gold or silver</p> Muhammad Fuad Zain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 12 1 119 132 10.24090/mnh.v12i1.1303 URGENSI ILMU KEDOKTERAN ISLAM DENGAN HUKUM ISLAM http://ejournal.iainpurwokerto.ac.id/index.php/almanahij/article/view/1323 <p>One sign of the rapidly growing world of medical science is its success in making one discovery about Deoxrybo Nucleid Acid (DNA). Islam does not prohibit the practice of DNA identification because it can be used in determining the legal status of relative relationships and related marital prohibitions among families because of the similarity of DNA genes between parents and their children. In Islam marriage prohibition can also occur between brothers and sisters. DNA identification can be done between siblings as a result of the presence of gene elements in breast milk. In addition, breast milk can also develop bone and grow meat if breastfeeding at least five times suction. But the results of DNA tests conducted between siblings cannot be more accurate if done to find relationships of parents and children. From this it clearly proves that Islamic medicine has an urgent value to Islamic law. This can be seen from one of its axiology in determining the status of brotherhood.</p> Li’izza Diana Manzil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 12 1 133 146 10.24090/mnh.v12i1.1323 PELIBATAN AKAD IJĀRAH DALAM PRAKTIK RAHN DI BANK SYARI’AH PERSPEKTIF HUKUM EKONOMI SYARI’AH http://ejournal.iainpurwokerto.ac.id/index.php/almanahij/article/view/1349 <p>The involvement of lease (<em>ijārah</em>) contract in pawn practice in syari’ah bank resulted in a combination of contract known as multi-<em>‘</em><em>aqd</em>. Concerning multiple contracts (<em>multi-</em><em>‘</em><em>aqd</em>), there are a number of Prophetic traditions, at least three hadiths that are outwardly (textual meaning) indicating a ban on the use of multiple covenants. For example, the hadith about the prohibition of trading and debts (<em>bai</em><em>’</em><em> wa salaf</em>), the prohibition to trade with two contracts (<em>bai</em><em>’</em><em>atain fī bai</em><em>’</em><em>ah</em>), and two sales and purchase contracts in one transaction (<em>ṣ</em><em>afqatain fī</em> <em>ṣ</em><em>afqah</em>). The contract of lease (<em>ijārah</em>) and the pawn agreement (<em>rahn</em>) are two different types of contract, in which the lease includes the type of sale and purchase agreement, while the pawn includes the type of loan contract. This combination of contracts is a type of multi-contract which is prohibited based on the hadith above. Transactions with this multi-contract form almost exist in all Islamic banking products today. This paper concludes that the law of engagement of lease contracts in pawn practices in Islamic banks is allowed. The Islamic jurisprudence scholars argue that this combination of contracts is compatible with the purpose of sharia (<em>maqāṣid al-sharī</em><em>’</em><em>ah</em>), namely the ease in muamalah, lightening in the burden, and provide opportunities for innovation and the relevance of the development of the times and human needs in transactions.</p> nur wahid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 12 1 147 161 10.24090/mnh.v12i1.1349